python操作RabbitMQ

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RabbitMQ是一个在AMQP基础上完整的,可复用的企业消息系统。他遵循Mozilla Public License开源协议。

MQ全称为Message Queue, 消息队列(MQ)是一种应用程序对应用程序的通信方法。应用程序通过读写出入队列的消息(针对应用程序的数据)来通信,而无需专用连接来链接它们。消 息传递指的是程序之间通过在消息中发送数据进行通信,而不是通过直接调用彼此来通信,直接调用通常是用于诸如远程过程调用的技术。排队指的是应用程序通过 队列来通信。队列的使用除去了接收和发送应用程序同时执行的要求。

RabbitMQ安装


安装配置epel源
   $ rpm -ivh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
安装erlang
   $ yum -y install erlang
安装RabbitMQ
   $ yum -y install rabbitmq-server

注意:service rabbitmq-server start/stop

安装API


pip install pika
or
easy_install pika
or
源码
https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pika

使用API操作RabbitMQ

基于Queue实现生产者消费者模型


#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import Queue
import threading
message = Queue.Queue(10)
def producer(i):
    while True:
        message.put(i)

def consumer(i):
    while True:
        msg = message.get()

for i in range(12):
    t = threading.Thread(target=producer, args=(i,))
    t.start()

for i in range(10):
    t = threading.Thread(target=consumer, args=(i,))
    t.start()

对于RabbitMQ来说,生产和消费不再针对内存里的一个Queue对象,而是某台服务器上的RabbitMQ Server实现的消息队列。


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
 
# ######################### 生产者 #########################
 
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()
 
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
 
channel.basic_publish(exchange='',
                      routing_key='hello',
                      body='Hello World!')
print(" [x] Sent 'Hello World!'")
connection.close()

# ########################## 消费者 ##########################
#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
 
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()
 
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
 
def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] Received %r" % body)
 
channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue='hello',
                      no_ack=True)
 
print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
channel.start_consuming()

1、acknowledgment 消息不丢失

no-ack = False,如果消费者遇到情况(its channel is closed, connection is closed, or TCP connection is lost)挂掉了,那么,RabbitMQ会重新将该任务添加到队列中。

消费者


import pika
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='10.211.55.4'))
channel = connection.channel()
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] Received %r" % body)
    import time
    time.sleep(10)
    print 'ok'
    ch.basic_ack(delivery_tag = method.delivery_tag)

channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue='hello',
                      no_ack=False)

print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
channel.start_consuming()

2、durable   消息不丢失

生产者


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='10.211.55.4'))
channel = connection.channel()

# make message persistent
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello', durable=True)

channel.basic_publish(exchange='',
                      routing_key='hello',
                      body='Hello World!',
                      properties=pika.BasicProperties(
                          delivery_mode=2, # make message persistent
                      ))
print(" [x] Sent 'Hello World!'")
connection.close()

消费者


#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pika

connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='10.211.55.4'))
channel = connection.channel()

# make message persistent
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello', durable=True)


def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] Received %r" % body)
    import time
    time.sleep(10)
    print 'ok'
    ch.basic_ack(delivery_tag = method.delivery_tag)

channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue='hello',
                      no_ack=False)

print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
channel.start_consuming()

3、消息获取顺序

默认消息队列里的数据是按照顺序被消费者拿走,例如:消费者1 去队列中获取 奇数 序列的任务,消费者1去队列中获取 偶数 序列的任务。

channel.basic_qos(prefetch_count=1) 表示谁来谁取,不再按照奇偶数排列

消费者


#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pika
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='10.211.55.4'))
channel = connection.channel()
# make message persistent
channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] Received %r" % body)
    import time
    time.sleep(10)
    print 'ok'
    ch.basic_ack(delivery_tag = method.delivery_tag)

channel.basic_qos(prefetch_count=1)

channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue='hello',
                      no_ack=False)
print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
channel.start_consuming()

4、发布订阅

python操作RabbitMQ

发布订阅和简单的消息队列区别在于,发布订阅会将消息发送给所有的订阅者,而消息队列中的数据被消费一次便消失。所以,RabbitMQ实现发布和订阅时,会为每一个订阅者创建一个队列,而发布者发布消息时,会将消息放置在所有相关队列中。

exchange type = fanout

发布者


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
import sys
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()

channel.exchange_declare(exchange='logs',
                         type='fanout')

message = ' '.join(sys.argv[1:]) or "info: Hello World!"
channel.basic_publish(exchange='logs',
                      routing_key='',
                      body=message)
print(" [x] Sent %r" % message)
connection.close()

订阅者


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()
channel.exchange_declare(exchange='logs',
                         type='fanout')
result = channel.queue_declare(exclusive=True)
queue_name = result.method.queue

channel.queue_bind(exchange='logs',
                   queue=queue_name)
print(' [*] Waiting for logs. To exit press CTRL+C')

def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] %r" % body)
channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue=queue_name,
                      no_ack=True)
channel.start_consuming()

5、关键字发送

python操作RabbitMQ

exchange type = direct

之前事例,发送消息时明确指定某个队列并向其中发送消息,RabbitMQ还支持根据关键字发送,即:队列绑定关键字,发送者将数据根据关键字发送到消息exchange,exchange根据 关键字 判定应该将数据发送至指定队列。

消费者


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
import sys
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()
channel.exchange_declare(exchange='direct_logs',
                         type='direct')
result = channel.queue_declare(exclusive=True)
queue_name = result.method.queue
severities = sys.argv[1:]
if not severities:
    sys.stderr.write("Usage: %s [info] [warning] [error]n" % sys.argv[0])
    sys.exit(1)
for severity in severities:
    channel.queue_bind(exchange='direct_logs',
                       queue=queue_name,
                       routing_key=severity)
print(' [*] Waiting for logs. To exit press CTRL+C')

def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
    print(" [x] %r:%r" % (method.routing_key, body))
channel.basic_consume(callback,
                      queue=queue_name,
                      no_ack=True)
channel.start_consuming()

生产者


#!/usr/bin/env python
import pika
import sys
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
        host='localhost'))
channel = connection.channel()
channel.exchange_declare(exchange='direct_logs',
                         type='direct')
severity = sys.argv[1] if len(sys.argv)  1 else 'info'
message = ' '.join(sys.argv[2:]) or 'Hello World!'
channel.basic_publish(exchange='direct_logs',
                      routing_key=severity,
                      body=message)
print(" [x] Sent %r:%r" % (severity, message))
connection.close()

6、模糊匹配

python操作RabbitMQ

exchange type = topic

在topic类型下,可以让队列绑定几个模糊的关键字,之后发送者将数据发送到exchange,exchange将传入”路由值“和 ”关键字“进行匹配,匹配成功,则将数据发送到指定队列。

  • # 表示可以匹配 0 个 或 多个 单词
  • *  表示只能匹配 一个 单词
  • 
    发送者路由值              队列中
    old.boy.python          old.*  -- 不匹配
    old.boy.python          old.#  -- 匹配
    

    消费者

    
    #!/usr/bin/env python
    import pika
    import sys
    connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
            host='localhost'))
    channel = connection.channel()
    channel.exchange_declare(exchange='topic_logs',
                             type='topic')
    result = channel.queue_declare(exclusive=True)
    queue_name = result.method.queue
    binding_keys = sys.argv[1:]
    if not binding_keys:
        sys.stderr.write("Usage: %s [binding_key]...n" % sys.argv[0])
        sys.exit(1)
    for binding_key in binding_keys:
        channel.queue_bind(exchange='topic_logs',
                           queue=queue_name,
                           routing_key=binding_key)
    print(' [*] Waiting for logs. To exit press CTRL+C')
    
    def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
        print(" [x] %r:%r" % (method.routing_key, body))
    channel.basic_consume(callback,
                          queue=queue_name,
                          no_ack=True)
    channel.start_consuming()
    

    生产者

    
    #!/usr/bin/env python
    import pika
    import sys
    connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(
            host='localhost'))
    channel = connection.channel()
    channel.exchange_declare(exchange='topic_logs',
                             type='topic')
    routing_key = sys.argv[1] if len(sys.argv)  1 else 'anonymous.info'
    message = ' '.join(sys.argv[2:]) or 'Hello World!'
    channel.basic_publish(exchange='topic_logs',
                          routing_key=routing_key,
                          body=message)
    print(" [x] Sent %r:%r" % (routing_key, message))
    connection.close()
    

    设置链接密码

    
    sudo rabbitmqctl add_user wupeiqi 123
    # 设置用户为administrator角色
    sudo rabbitmqctl set_user_tags wupeiqi administrator
    # 设置权限
    sudo rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p "/" root ".*" ".*" ".*"
    # 然后重启rabbiMQ服务
    sudo /etc/init.d/rabbitmq-server restart
     
    # 然后可以使用刚才的用户远程连接rabbitmq server了。
    ------------------------------
    credentials = pika.PlainCredentials("wupeiqi","123")
    connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters('192.168.14.47',credentials=credentials))
    

    设置超时时间

    
    #!/usr/bin/env python
    # -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
    import pika
    from pika.adapters.blocking_connection import BlockingChannel
    credentials = pika.PlainCredentials("root", "123")
    conn = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='10.211.55.20', credentials=credentials))
    # 超时时间
    conn.add_timeout(5, lambda: channel.stop_consuming())
    channel = conn.channel()
    channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
    def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
        print(" [x] Received %r" % body)
        channel.stop_consuming()
    channel.basic_consume(callback,
                          queue='hello',
                          no_ack=True)
    print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
    channel.start_consuming()
    
    python操作RabbitMQ

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    转载声明:转载请注明出处,本技术博客是本人原创文章

    本文GitHub https://github.com/OUYANGSIHAI/JavaInterview 已收录,这是我花了6个月总结的一线大厂Java面试总结,本人已拿大厂offer,欢迎star

    原文链接:blog.ouyangsihai.cn >> python操作RabbitMQ


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